Download citation
Download citation
link to html
FERMI is the first and only seeded EUV-SXR free-electron laser (FEL) facility available to users; it operates at Elettra – Sincrotrone Trieste (Italy) and it presents five operating endstations. Three of them, namely LDM (Low Density Matter), DiProI (Diffraction and Projection Imaging) and MagneDyn (Magneto-Dynamical studies), use a Kirkpatrick–Baez (KB) active X-ray optics system to focus the FEL pulses into the experimental chambers. The present work reports on the final results of the upgraded KB Active Optics Systems (KAOS), which have been mechanically modified in order to improve stability and repeatability with respect to the original design. The results have been obtained on both the FERMI FEL lines, FEL1 and FEL2, and are particularly relevant for the latter as it is the low-wavelength line recently opened to users. After a thorough description of the new mechanical layout of the system and the aspects that have been improved after the refurbishment, a set of simulations of the optical performances are presented. The code used to simulate the behavior of KAOS is WISEr, a physical-optics-based tool, which is freely accessible, and integrated into the Oasys platform, that takes into account the specific surface metrology characterization of the beamline mirrors, including figure errors and microroughness power spectral density. The results of WISEr are then used as a reference for the actual optimization of the optical system. This procedure relies heavily on a wavefront sensor (WFS) mounted out of focus to optimize the refocusing mirrors alignment as well as their curvature bending (by minimization of the coefficients of the Zernike wavefront expansion). Moreover, the WFS data are used to reconstruct the focal spot parameters by means of a back-propagation of the electric field. Finally, these results are compared with those obtained after the FEL ablation of a PMMA layer positioned on the focal plane, and analyzed ex situ in a post-mortem fashion. The mechanically refurbished optical system and the multi-technique alignment approach, aimed at optimizing the mirrors' curvature, pitch and roll angles, allowed a focal spot of 1.8 µm × 2.4 µm at 4.14 nm wavelength (FEL2) to be inferred, confirmed by the PMMA ablation imprints.

Follow J. Synchrotron Rad.
Sign up for e-alerts
Follow J. Synchrotron Rad. on Twitter
Follow us on facebook
Sign up for RSS feeds