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Following many years of evolutionary development, first at the National Synchrotron Light Source, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and then at the Advanced Photon Source (APS), Argonne National Laboratory, the APS ultra-small-angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) facility has been transformed by several new developments. These comprise a conversion to higher-order crystal optics and higher X-ray energies as the standard operating mode, rapid fly scan measurements also as a standard operational mode, automated contiguous pinhole small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements at intermediate scattering vectors, and associated rapid wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS) measurements for X-ray diffraction without disturbing the sample geometry. With each mode using the USAXS incident beam optics upstream of the sample, USAXS/SAXS/WAXS measurements can now be made within 5 min, allowing in situ and operando measurement capabilities with great flexibility under a wide range of sample conditions. These developments are described, together with examples of their application to investigate materials phenomena of technological importance. Developments of two novel USAXS applications, USAXS-based X-ray photon correlation spectroscopy and USAXS imaging, are also briefly reviewed.

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