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Unstable nets, by definition, display vertex collisions in any barycentric representation, among which are approximate models for the associated crystal structures. This means that different vertex lattices happen to superimpose when every vertex of a periodic net is located at the centre of gravity of its first neighbours. Non-crystallographic nets are known to be unstable, but crystallographic nets can also be unstable and general conditions for instability are not known. Moreover, examples of unstable nets are still scarce. This article presents a systematic analysis of unstable 3-periodic nets of genus 4, satisfying the restrictions that, in a suitable basis, (i) their labelled quotient graph contains a spanning tree with zero voltage and (ii) voltage coordinates belong to the set {−1, 0, 1}. These nets have been defined by a unique circuit of null voltage in the quotient graph. They have been characterized through a shortest path between colliding vertices. The quotient graph and the nature of the net obtained after identification of colliding vertices, if known, are also provided. The complete list of the respective unstable nets, with a detailed description of the results, can be found in the supporting information.

Supporting information


Text file
List of labelled quotient graphs, given as a Systre key (original-nets.cgd)


Text file
List of labelled quotient graphs of collided nets, given as a Systre key (collided-nets.cgd)


Microsoft Excel (XLSX) file
Excel file that summarizes the information of the properties of the nets


Portable Document Format (PDF) file
Detailed description of the properties of the nets

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