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Non-extended and extended dead-time models, a pulse-height analyser (PHA) windowing model, and a model intermediate between the non-extended and extended models for losses in counting methods are compared. The validities of the methods are examined by application to the analysis of powder diffraction peak intensity profiles measured by a foil method. The intermediate model including parameters for the dead-time and degree of extension can reproduce both the non-extended and the extended models and also intermediate dependence between the two models. A convenient approximate formula for the intermediate model, the maximum relative deviation of which is 0.0003, is also proposed. The determination of the parameters and a correction for the measured intensities can easily be achieved by applying the approximate model, because it provides simple formulae for the correction function expressed as a combination of elementary functions. Experimental and analytical methods for precise evaluation of the parameters to specify the counting losses are also presented. Systematic deviations of the observed dependence from the non-extended and extended dead-time models have been detected by the precise analyses of experimental data, while the PHA windowing model, intermediate model and its approximation have reproduced the observed dependence within the experimental errors.

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