Download citation
Download citation
link to html
A rigorous method is proposed to describe and classify the topology of entanglements between periodic networks if the links are of the Hopf type. The catenation pattern is unambiguously identified by a net of barycentres of catenating rings with edges corresponding to the Hopf links; this net is called the Hopf ring net. The Hopf ring net approach is compared with other methods of characterizing entanglements; a number of applications of this approach to various kinds of entanglement (interpenetration, polycatenation and self-catenation) both in modelled network arrays and in coordination networks are considered.

Supporting information


Microsoft Excel (XLS) file
Supplementary material in Word spreadsheet format


Open Spreadsheet Text (ODS) file
Supplementary material in Open Office spreadsheet format

Follow Acta Cryst. A
Sign up for e-alerts
Follow Acta Cryst. on Twitter
Follow us on facebook
Sign up for RSS feeds