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The peroxisomal multifunctional enzyme type 1 (MFE1) catalyzes two successive reactions in the β-oxidation cycle: the 2E-enoyl-CoA hydratase (ECH) and NAD+-dependent 3S-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase (HAD) reactions. MFE1 is a monomeric enzyme that has five domains. The N-terminal part (domains A and B) adopts the crotonase fold and the C-terminal part (domains C, D and E) adopts the HAD fold. A new crystal form of MFE1 has captured a conformation in which both active sites are noncompetent. This structure, at 1.7 Å resolution, shows the importance of the interactions between Phe272 in domain B (the linker helix; helix H10 of the crotonase fold) and the beginning of loop 2 (of the crotonase fold) in stabilizing the competent ECH active-site geometry. In addition, protein crystallographic binding studies using optimized crystal-treatment protocols have captured a structure with both the 3-ketodecanoyl-CoA product and NAD+ bound in the HAD active site, showing the interactions between 3-ketodecanoyl-CoA and residues of the C, D and E domains. Structural comparisons show the importance of domain movements, in particular of the C domain with respect to the D/E domains and of the A domain with respect to the HAD part. These comparisons suggest that the N-terminal part of the linker helix, which interacts tightly with domains A and E, functions as a hinge region for movement of the A domain with respect to the HAD part.

Supporting information


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Supplementary Figures and Tables and caption to Supplementary Video S1.


AVI file
Supplementary Video S1.

PDB references: MFE1, HAD-3keto, 5omo; 3keto-3mM-NAD+, 6z5f; single molecule, 6z5o; 3keto-1mM-NAD+, 6z5v

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