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Reflection electron microscopy (REM) in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions is reviewed. UHV-REM can characterize surface structures of monolayer levels such as steps, domains of reconstructed surface structures and their boundaries and these capabilities are used to observe surface dynamic processes such as phase transitions of reconstructed surface structures and adsorbate structures and adsorption processes, oxidations, sublimations and ion-sputtering and annealing. The method is compared with other surface-imaging techniques.
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